Dietary Advice for Patients with Kidney Stones

  1. Drinking enough fluid is the most important aspect of preventing stone formation
    1. Aim to drink 2-3 liters of fluid each day to maintain urine colour light
    2. Lemonade and orange juice have a preventative effort on kidney stone formation 
  2. Adequate intake of calcium from natural food: 1000-1200mg per day
    1. Milk and its products including yogurt, cream and cheese
    2. Calcium supplements should be avioded
    3. Bean products - Tofu, red and green beans
  3. Avoid oxalates-rich food such as:
    1. Rhubarb, spinach, beetroot, strawberries, black tea, chocolate and nuts;
    2. It is not necessary to exclude oxalate rich food completely; eat them in small amounts.
    3. Tea is allowed in moderation, better to be taken with milk.
    4. Avoid large doses of supplemental Vitamin C.
  4. Intake of meat and protein
    1. High intake of animal protein increase risk of stone formation
    2. Avoid large portion of red meat
    3. Limit animal protein: 0.8-1g/kg/per day
  5. Restrict the amount of salt intake
    1. High salt intake can contribute to calcium stone formation
    2. Keep salt intake to 4-5g/day (1 teaspoon of salt contains 2.5g)
    3. Avoid high salt processed food (e.g. pizza, salted chips or nuts, canned food, smoked fish)
  6. Take food rich in fiber like fruits and vegetables, corn and wheat. 
  7. Maintain normal body weight as obesity is a significant risk factor for stones
    BMI>30 have 2 times the risk of stone formation compared to those with BMI less than 25.