Anaesthesiologists provide care to patients undergoing surgery. They undertake medical assessment and preparation of patients and can administer general (where a patient is unconscious) or regional anaesthesia (where part of the body is made temporarily numb). Fluid therapy, resuscitation and pain management after surgery are also important. Plain relief in labour can be provided with techniques such as epidural analgesia. Some anaesthesiologists are also trained to manage complex chronic pain conditions.
Clinical Microbiology is a specialty of medicine that deals with diseases caused by micro-organisms. There are four groups of micro-organisms that can cause diseases in humans: bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. A clinical microbiologist prevents, diagnoses and treats infectious diseases and controls infectious disease outbreaks.
Critical Care / Intensive Care Medicine
Critical Care / Intensive Care Medicine is concerned with the management of life-threatening illnesses and injuries that require intensive monitoring and organ support. The care is provided with specialised equipment and medications at the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital. Intensivists work closely with ICU nurses and doctors in other specialties to support patients in critical conditions until they are stable enough for transfer to less intensively monitored units.
Dermatology is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of skin hair, nails, mouth and genitals. Cosmetic care will also be covered in this specialty.
Emergency Medicine is a specialty committed to providing immediate care to unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries. As providers of initial care, emergency physicians are responsible for initiating investigations and interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting with a wide range of conditions. The conditions of these patients and fast-paced work environment require emergency physicians to be knowledgeable with accurate clinical judgement.
Geriatric Medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on medical issues and diseases of aging, and of old age (usually over 65 years old). With aging, medical care becomes more complex as the number of medical conditions accumulate, with additional cognitive and psycho-social elements. A Geriatrician is an expert in assessing how these elements impact on one another, and in how medications interact with each other to affect you as an individual.
A Geriatrician works with other specialties in providing a comprehensive team-based approach, and has access to physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, clinical psychologists, dieticians, and other disciplines when needed. The mission of Geriatric Medicine is to keep you healthy, active, independent and maintaining your highest quality of life.
Haematology is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of blood and bone marrow disorder.
Haemodialysis is a renal replacement therapy that removes metabolic wastes and excess fluid from the body to restore acid-base balance and stability of electrolytes and biochemical parameters. The treatment is prescribed to patients with severe acute or chronic kidney disease, the latter usually on an outpatient basis. To commence haemodialysis, a site to access blood is created by joining an artery to a vein most commonly in the forearm or by inserting a catheter into a major vein.
Hepatology is a specialty of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of diseases of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas. Traditionally considered a subspecialty of Gastroenterology, Hepatology has expanded into a specialty on its own in parallel with the increase in prevalence of liver diseases. Conditions commonly managed by hepatologists include hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, gallstones, cholecystitis and pancreatitis.
Immunology & Allergy
Immunology is a medical subpecialty that studies the immune responses of various medical disorders, particularly those in the fields of dermatology, immunodeficiency, microbiology, oncology, rheumatology and transplantation medicine.
Allergy is an exaggerated response of the immune system to triggering agents (allergens) in the environment which otherwise cause little or no reactions in most people. Allergic responses are responsible for conditions such as allergic asthma, anaphylactic reactions, atopic dermatitis, drug and food allergies and hay fever.
Infectious diseases is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and prevention of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. The diseases can be spread directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans and cause disease. The scope of diseases caused by infection includes emerging pandemic and epidemic diseases, tropical diseases, tuberculosis, HIV / AIDS, hepatitis and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, in particular post transplant patients. Prevention of infectious diseases is conducted via vaccination and infection control measures.
Internal medicine, also known as general medicine, is a medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of adult diseases by non-surgical techniques. Doctors in this particular specialty are sometimes known as physicians or internists.
Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery
Oral and maxillo-facial surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases, injuries and defects of head, neck, face, mouth and jaw. Cleft lip / palate repair, treatment of facial trauma and surgery for cancer will also be covered in this specialty.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases through the use of radioactive materials. The doses of radioactive materials used for diagnostic purposes are usually small.
Pain management is a branch of medicine that adopts a multidisciplinary approach to reduce pain and improve quality of life of patients suffering from chronic pain due to cancer or various non-malignant conditions. Pain management specialists are usually anaesthesiologists by training. However, depending on the origin and nature of pain to be treated, pain management services can also be provided by oncologists, neurologists and other specialists.
Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the repair of missing or damaged tissue and skin due to surgery, illness, injury or birth abnormality. Cosmetic surgery is also covered.
Psychiatry is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental health conditions. Psychiatrists use various forms of psychological, medications and physical treatments, in various settings (hospitals, clinics, community) to help patients recover from mental health conditions.
Rheumatology is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of various forms of arthritis, particularly those characterised by chronic inflammation, and systemic autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis, scleroderma, Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic vasculitis.